When a sperm penetrates the ovum, it is called fertilization. Even without ejaculation, sperm are present in the small amount of fluid produced by a tiny gland called the Cowper’s gland. Cowper’s fluid leaks out of the penis during sexual activity. Therefore pregnancy is possible even without ejaculation.
Even without penetration of the man’s penis inside the woman’s vagina, when there is fertile-type mucus in the woman’s body, the tiny, microscopic sperm can swim into the vaginal opening, up the vagina, into the uterus, and into the fallopian tubes. There the sperm may meet the ovum, and pregnancy may begin.
For this reason, during the woman’s fertile time, pregnancy is possible with only genital contact (touching of the penis to the vaginal area).
Dividing and maturing as it goes, the fertilized ovum is moved slowly along the fallopian tube toward the uterus by the cilia, tiny hairs inside the fallopian tubes. In six or seven days, the fertilized ovum implants in the endometrium (the lining of the uterus), the bed that has been created to receive it. Menstruation (bleeding) does not occur, because the fertilized ovum, growing and developing in the uterus, creates hormones that maintain the uterine lining. The woman realizes she has conceived.